Der Monarch Leert Geldspielgeräte


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Der Monarch Leert Geldspielgeräte

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Der Monarch Leert Geldspielgeräte

Bonno van der Putten also has conducted a significant number of acquisitions and divestments. Bonno started with growth capital with the goal to give entrepreneurs the motivation to follow their passion and the strategies they need to succeed.

Van der Putten has also delivered over keynote presentations to entrepreneurs in North America, Europe, and Asia. He has been featured as an entrepreneurial expert for magazines, newspapers, radio, and television and is a recognized business authority.

He works with brands to help them connect to the entrepreneur community. Bonno van der Putten certainly made a positive impact both on and off stage, and his enthusiasm certainly made it all the more an interesting presentation.

This was further more confirmed through the various requests made by participants during the conference meetings, who would like to see more of Bonno and his insights, in future conferences.

Bonno van der Putten gespecialiseerd in de uitvoering van contra-expertises — beoordelingen onderzoeken en rapportages van andere partijen op onder andere volledigheid, juistheid, consistentie en overeenstemming met wet- en regelgeving, inclusief gehanteerde procedures.

Contra-expertises die zich richten op houdbaarheid gerapporteerde bevindingen. Bij Monarch blinken we uit in onze specialisaties, zegt van der Putten.

Expertises zoals arbeids-, ondernemings - en ontslagrecht. We doen niet alles een beetje, maar alleen datgene waarin we excelleren.

Onze ervaring leert dat er soms fundamentele gebreken kleven aan gehanteerde procedures, verrichte werkzaamheden en rapportages van dienstverleners en organisaties zoals toezichthouders en register accountants.

Maar ook bijvoorbeeld aan beslisdocumenten die directies aan ondernemingsraden ter beschikking stellen.

Als gevolg van zulke gebreken gebeurt het nogal eens dat de vermeende grondslag onder de gepresenteerde bevindingen geen stand houdt. Monarch biedt zijn mensen een inspirerende werkomgeving die permanente ontwikkeling mogelijk maakt.

Bonno van der Putten heeft grote ervaring in het arbeids - en ondernemingsrecht. Hij is een expert in collectieve ontslagprocedures en onderzoek naar misstanden bij aandeelhouders ruzies, reorganisaties en herstructureringsvraagstukken.

Bonno adviseert zowel bestuurders als vennootschappen over ontslag van leden van de Raad van Bestuur en wordt regelmatig ingeschakeld bij reorganisaties van grote internationale ondernemingen.

Bonno schreef verscheidene boeken over zijn vakgebied en geeft met regelmaat lezingen op het gebied van overgang van onderneming en reorganisatie vraagstukke.

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Modern democracy is distinguished from classical democracy in its emphasis on representation. Max Weber.. Tawney turned back to a more materialist explanation, arguing that urban market capitalism was in place before Protestantism..

Democratic government, by contrast, may even take more revenues and taxes depending on majority preferences but is pressed to reinvest these resources for public goods and services in order to avoid of being deselected.

Liberal Western democracies have proven superior to any authoritarian alternative--whether fascist, communist or fundamentalist.

Milton Rokeachs distinction between the open and the closed mind. An authoritarian personality, whom one can find among adherents of right-wing ideologies Falter , shows opposite attitudes: relatively low self-esteem often compensated by a cult physical strength , moral rigidity, resistance to innovations, little tolerance and trust..

Alex Inkeles.. Unlike institutionalists and elitists who believe that the stability of political orders is basically a matter of constitutional engineering or elite commitment, culturalists take it for granted that mass beliefs and attitudes are even more important.

Harry Ecksteins congruence theory Eckstein , Otherwise these political institutions are unstable. The evolutionary premise, outlined in Talcott Parsons Evolutionary Universals in Society , maintains that social systems are in a struggle for survival..

Easton divided this cycle into two major strings: the input string carrying the citizens supports and demands to the institutions, and the output string carrying official policies to the citizens.

Over the years, the economic prosperity, social security and political stability that came along with the new German democracy have contributed to legitimize this system in the eyes of most of the Germans..

The Political Action Study by Barnes and Kaase et al.. It became obvious from the Political Action study that a massive cultural shift had taken place in which civic i.

Like civic associations, social movements may be considered as schools of democracy.. Eastern Europe, dissident civic movements..

This is what Daniel Bell called the postindustrial society. Party systems in representative democracies are politicized social structures. Stein Rokkans Cleavage Theory..

In all Western democracies, the major conflict axis appeared between leftist socialist or social democratic parties, on one hand, and rightist Christian or conservative parties, on the other hand.

And in all Western democracies the major substantial point of conflict was the economic balance between the welfare state and the market.

New politics points to cultural rather than economic conflicts, focusing on post-materialist goals that lay emphasis on questions of ecology and state authority versus individual liberty.

Logics of Party Formation , Herbert Kitschelt.. Durham According to Maslow, human needs are structured along a hierarchy, beginning with primary and secondary needs and ending with final needs.

Inglehart applied the logic of Maslows hierarchy of needs to the development of Western societies after World War II.

The evidence, however, that Inglehart could provide had been debated in at least three aspects: 1 the usefulness of ranking-scales compared to rating scales; 2 the dimensionality of his materialistic and postmaterialistic attitudes; and 3 the trend towards postmaterialism..

Test of the Theory of Postmaterialism.. Ingleharts theory of postmaterialistic value change has initiated a debate..

A considerable part of these debates dealt with the usefulness of Ingleharts item-batteries and especially the fact that these batteries are organized as ranking scales.

Klages and Gensicke People may apply different rankings, depending on the social situation. And many people may not see a trade-off between different values and may therefore give them equal priority.

Klages and Gensicke found out that many Germans have mixed value priorities, which means that people do not necessarily consider different goals as being conflicting.

Klages and Gensicke identified conventionalists who put emphasis on diligence, loyalty, and security. Flanagans critique against Inglehart..

Schwartz ; If human values are not structured in a general way, there can be no general theory of value change. One dimension represents a polarity between the principle of self-enhancement, including power and achievement values, and the principle of self-transcendance, including universalism and benevolence values.

Robert Putnam.. Consensus of the Civics School.. This position is strongly opposed by the institutionalists school..

Making Democracy Work.. From my point of view, this is the least convincing point.. The claim and the evidence, however, that social capital precedes economic development are weak.

The Bowling Alone Thesis.. Considered as mass characteristics, these attitudes are more closely associated with each other than considered as individual characteristics.

Robinson was among the first who detected that the relationship between two variables can be very different at the individual level and the aggregate level.

As noted by Landes xx , years ago the income ratio of the richest to the poorest nations was approximately But uneven economic growth has dramatically risen this ratio up to today.

The presence of self-expression values among the populace indicates a culture that is oriented to human emancipation.

Usually, people tend to adapt their aspirations to these constraints.. Southern Italians distrust their fellow citizens and therefore support rigid community discipline.

These citizens tend to put much emphasis on social control, public order, hierarchy, moral rigidity and strong authority - typical conformity values which prevail under restrictive human conditions.

Measured against humanity and human nature, cultures of conformity are definitely inferior to cultures of emancipation because conformity values impose more serious constraints on unfolding the human potential in societies.

Liberty aspirations include negative as well as positive freedom Rose Negative freedom implies the protection of an individuals private choices against public force, while positive freedom offers an individual public choices in the selection of office holders and official policies.

Indian case.. Legitimacy, Communitarism, or Emancipatory Culture.. The emancipatory approach argues.. World Values Surveys..

Social trust.. Each component of the self-expression value syndrome has a strong relationship to democracy.

Among the various components of self-expression values, liberty aspirations are clearly the one with the strongest partial effect on democracy.

Bratton and Mattes This reflects again that self-expression values are not a necessary condition to generate support for democracy.

Support for democracy is too much inflated by instrumental motives.. However, this effect becomes very small once controlling for resource accumulation..

These findings suggest that the emergence of self-expression values reflects primarily an increase in available individual resources, which then intensifies peoples attention to the entitlements granted through democracy.

What we observe over the period from the s to the s is the most outstanding global series of transitions to democracy in human history Kurzman ; Dorenspleet Adherents of the elitist approaches insist that elite actions are always the most proximate factor in establishing democracies.

Summing this up, one can conclude that in the relationship between democratic institutions and emancipatory cultures the stronger causal arrow runs from culture to institutions.

The Theory of Human Development.. Overall, societal levels of individual resources, emancipatory values and effective democracy tend to correspond to each other, as previous analyses have clearly shown.

What is new, is the empirical evidence that has been added in recent years.. Nevertheless, we still lack an integrated theory of social change.

We unfold a concept based on the principle of human choice. Anand and Sen Welzel , arguing that resource accumulation, rising emancipatory values and democracy work together in promoting human choice..

Socioeconomic development includes a bundle of processes, such as urbanization, social mobilization and occupational differentiation, which increase social complexity and multiply social transactions between human beings Bendix ; Durkheim ; Simmel ; Blau In short, socioeconomic development contributes the means-component to human choice.

This view is as old as Aristotle and has been argued from Adam Smith and Karl Marx to Amartya Sen The emancipatory change of values is the second subprocess relevant to human choice.

This is consistent with the notion that choice is not only a matter of ones means but also of ones mind and motivation Rokeach The third component of Human Development, liberal democracy, institutionalizes legal guarantees of choice in the citizens private and public activities.

Available individual resources, self-expression values and effective freedom rights are the three core elements of Human Development that represent its means-, motives- and rules-components.

These components are provided by socioeconomic development, emancipatory cultural change and democratization, respectively. The three components of Human Development all coincide in their focus on human choice.

Human Development is by no means a teleological concept. Societies can move in either direction, towards more or towards less Human Development..

On the other hand, this concept is sharply focused on one theme: the growth or decline of human choice.

This insight is important. It implies that effective democracy is a developmental phenomenon rather than the product of enlightened elites or clever institutional engineering.

If the linkages of Human Development cover different cultural zones, then these linkages are universal, since they operate across cultural zones and not only within specific cultural zones.

Weber , Eisenstadt , Huntington and many others emphasized that nations cluster into larger units labeled country families, cultural zones, or civilizations.

This confirms that the two linkages of Human Development are independent of cultural zones to a considerable degree.

Instead, they represent interplaying factors that function complementary. In conclusion, the linkages of Human Development are not culture-specific.

They are universal. Mass emphasis on self-expression tends to produce integer elites who extend or sustain constitutional freedom. There is little reason to assume a reverse causation behind the relationship between self-expression values and elite integrity.

The Growth of Choice as a General Theme in Human Evolution.. In a way, any religion appeals to the ideal of human freedom.

The only peculiarity of religion in this respect is that it postpones the fulfillment of this ideal to the after-world, through the promise of salvation.

Modeling options and processing choices is the most typically human ability. Different Environments..

The relationship between geography and economy still exists.. Yet, it is possible to overcome disadvantageous ecological conditions by technology.

Biological evolution can be considered as the accumulation of life experience through coding these experiences chemically in our genetic code. The social evolution from less to more complex societies runs several thousands times faster than the genetic evolution from less to more complex organisms.

With the human brain, a new source of evolution appeared: a deliberate trial and error process in search of solutions to environmental challenges.

Since that time, evolution has been accelerated and entered a new level: It shifted from the level of random genetic mutations to the level of active learning Durham Social evolution presupposes that life experiences of individuals be accumulated, becoming part of a collectively available pool of experiences.

The pool of collectively shared experiences, as well as the norms, values, rules and standards that emerge from them, is what defines the culture of a community Durham Evolutionary Breakthrough: Mass Prosperity and Mass Democracy..

This drove the Western societies into a competition for mass prosperity that propelled Human Development on a mass-scale. Why the West?

North Western Europe.. Considered in light of the polarity between conformity and emancipative values, the Oriental empire probably represents the historical configuration with the most rigorous emphasis on conformity values.

And without individual property there were no human rights and no civic entitlements. The institution of citizenship, which includes the right for political representation, originated in societies with militia systems.

Typical examples are free peasant republics and city republics. Militia systems, citizenship and republicanism are historically closely linked.

It ever was and still is the most significant indicator of low Human Development that everything is scarce and expensive, except human labor Reinert It is no accident that researchers characterized the Oriental empires as cleptocracies Diamond or plundering machines Tilly Oriental civilizations were permanently exposed to the raids of nomads..

In terms of the seed-yield ratio, soil productivity in the Oriental river basins clearly outperformed even that of Holland, which was the most productive agriculture in late medieval Europe.

Thus, oriental agriculture allowed for and required a much denser population.. The major advantage of the North Western climate are moderate differences in seasonal temperatures and above all sufficient and continuous rain fall..

Closeness to the sea plus the dense net of navigable waterways facilitate transport, trade, communication, cultural diffusion and so: civic exchange in general..

Thus, horizontal exchange relations between social entities gained at least the same significance as the vertical authority relations within them.

The settlement frontier expanded in an accelerated way from the 10th century onward. This marks one decisive origin of Human Development: the scarcity of the human factor, which increases its economic value and consequently also its ethical value.

As a system of autonomous local entities, the feudal system resulted from the dissolution of the Roman Empire Pirenne Northwestern Europe, was far beyond the reach of the raids of the nomadic steppe peoples of Central Asia.

As soon as the raids of the Norman Vikings came to an end in the 11th century, Northwestern Europe was completely saved from any nomadic threat.

Being isolated from the empire-building forces of the Orient and not disposing of the natural conditions that command centrally planned economies, European monarchs were unable to establish a sustainable continental empire.

Exit-options and the scarcity of the labor force, gave rulers an incentive to treat their subjects less repressive North This minimum sense of human dignity reflects a spirit that found a more explicit philosophical expression later on in the humanistic ethos of Renaissance and Protestantism.

The European agricultural economy was less labor-intensive than the Oriental agriculture.. Northwestern Europe.. This was a crucial precondition to accumulate individual resources.

The nuclear family came into existence much earlier and served as a precondition to the commercial revolution in the 14th century. Commercial Revolution..

This Commercial Revolution rested on productivity growth in the agricultural sector.. From those capital-intensive Tilly areas emerged Europes central city belt..

The towns, far-distance trade and the monetized economy began to flourish since the 12th century Pirenne This commercial revolution signifies the outbreak from the poverty trap of Oriental civilizations.

Furthermore, in the 13th century there was a rapid spread of windmills again in Northwestern Europe. Better nutrition in turn improved health and life expectancy among Northwestern Europeans Landes Housing technology suitable to control the indoor climate improved substantially with the use of the chimney, coal and glass for windows.

What Francis Bacon could label as the three greatest inventions of all mankind - the compass, gunpowder and printing - were all developed in China Sowell But in China such innovations were guarded like state secrets, while in Europe innovations came rapidly into popular use.

Similar differences apply to the patterns of commerce and trade. Chinese trade served the luxury needs of courts and palaces.

Russia, by contrast, was thrown back in its development for centuries under the rule of the Mongols.

The economic value of the human factor created the material basis of its ethical appraisal. Not by accident, the humanistic ethos of the Renaissance did not emerge before but after the Commercial Revolution; and not by accident did it not occur in the rural areas but in the most vivid urban centers of European capitalism: Northern Italy and Flanders.

The humanistic ethos emerged after the Commercial Revolution in the most commercialized areas. Protestantism may have strengthened capitalism but it did not cause the rise of capitalism, as some interpreters of Max Weber suggest.

Capitalism was prior to Protestantism. In addition, further improvements of the legal system had been achieved in promoting the commercial dynamic.

Property rights and contractual laws enhanced trust.. Another improvement in the rule of law occurred in the 15th century: the introduction of patent rights that protected technological innovations.

The selective incentives worked in favor of experimenting, learning and innovating activities, widening the scope of human choice.

The need for innovations in turn directed attention to research, discoveries and the sciences. A market for the distribution of know-how and experience emerged, launching a boom of book printing.

Only twenty years after Guntenbergs death , there were about 1, printing machines in use across Western European cities Jones Europes political disunity facilitated competition and experimentation..

Just in the moment when China, the most prominent candidate for a technological breakthrough into the industrial age, decided to isolate itself from the rest of the world, Europeans began to explore the world and to dominate it.

Holland and England became the centers of Atlantic Capitalism. English and Dutch colonial activities derived from commercial initiatives and were financed and managed by private organizations, the East India Companies.

Hence, it was not the monarchy but the commercial middle class that profited from colonial enterprises. This strengthened the middle classs bargaining power against the monarch.

The Commercial Revolution prompted what Depak Lal calls Smithenean growth. Europe was spared from being united within a continental empire.

Instead of an empire, Europe represented a multipolar system of rivaling territorial units.. In order to strengthen their military capacities..

The town burgers and other property-owning estates conceded to the monarch the right to raise taxes in exchange for their right to vote on royal projects in particular assemblies: the parliaments.

No taxation without representation was the core principle that governed this constitutional arrangement. In both Athens and Rome..

From the logic of their genesis, freedom rights are the concession to the emancipative aspirations of those who possess something. In the sense that capitalism increased property and enlarged the circle of property owners, capitalism is the cradle of Human Development.

The commercial florescence opened up affluent tax sources for the monarchs. The price to be paid for tax extraction, however, was the parliamentary representation of the tax payers Downing The Atlantic Revolutions in 17th and 18th century Holland, England, France and Northern America were just anti-tax rebellions Moore ; Wallerstein To carry through the demand no taxation without representation was driving the Dutchs fight for independence against the Spanish Habsburgs , the English parliaments war against the absolutist Tudor kings , the war of independence of the New England colonies against English sovereignty as well the French Revolution that ended the Bourbons absolute rule.

In a sense, these Atlantic Revolutions Wallerstein were conservative. They carried through the principle of assembly-power against the ambitions of monarchs aiming at establishing absolute rule.

It was the evolutionary logic of the representative principle that allowed for this co-evolvement of available resources, duties to the state and personal as well as political rights.

This commercial society was characterized by horizontal networks of economic exchange, and it nourished a civil society that created horizontal networks of civic exchange.

The florescence of civil society was reflected in a multiplicity of autonomous judicial corporations.. England, Switzerland and the Netherlands were those countries that had the weakest absolutistic tendencies.

The state-driven exploitation of the silver mines in Latin-America provided the Habsburgs external resources, making their activities independent from tax endowments of the commercial middle class.

The imperialism of the Spanish Habsburgs received additional support through its coalition with the Catholic Counter-Reformation. The Great Inquisition gave the monarchy the legitimacy to suppress any form of non-conformism Chirot Switzerland and the Netherlands..

Like England, these nations managed an evolutionary transition from the aristocratic representative constitution of the late Medieval commercial era to the democratic representative constitution of the modern industrial era.

The stage for the Industrial Revolution was settled in the centers of Atlantic capitalism, Northwestern Europe and Northern America, through the agricultural and commercial revolutions North Only the second phase of industrialization produced increasing incomes on a mass-scale..

Extending the principle of representation to all social classes meant to transform the liberal representative system into a democratic representative system.

Through this step, modern mass democracies were born. Modern democracy is different from ancient democracy in that it includes almost all adults into the political community.

In the centers of Atlantic Capitalism, the state obtained only limited coercive means. And these means were under full civil control by parliaments whose influence reached into the government itself.

What the societies of the civic tradition achieved already in the industrial age, the societies of the coercive tradition achieved only in the post-industrial era.

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